Trace Elements Measurement of Mangium Wood (Acacia mangium) by AAS
Nyoman J Wistara1), Evelin Yustiana2)
1) Department of Forest Products, Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Indonesia
2) The Secretariat of Forestry Human Resource Development and Training Agency, the Ministry of Forestry of the Republic of Indonesia
Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org (Nyoman J Wistara)
The ash and metals content of Acacia mangium Wild was determined following standard procedures of TAPPI T211 om-93 test method and wet ashing procedures with HNO3 and HClO4 solution, respectively. easurements of trace elements were carried out by the use of atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Although it was fluctuating, the lowest ash content was found in a 5 years old wood and then tended to increase in older three. In the 3 and 5 years old wood, the ash content decreased from upper end to the lower end of the stems. In the 7 and 9 years old wood, the lowest ash content was in the middle part and it tends to increase to the lower end of the stem. Ash content of sapwood was higher than that of heartwood. The content of Mg decreased with increasing age of wood, and other metals tended to increase with the increase of wood age. Metallic components of acacia wood tended to accumulate more in sapwood compared to these in heartwoods. Vertically, the content of Mg and Cu decreased from upper end to lower end of the stems, and in contrary to these of other metals.
Key words: atomic absorption spectrometry, Acacia mangium, closed loop cycle, metallic contents, oxygen-based bleaching
Perubahan Warna Kayu Jabon Terwarnai Ekstrak Kulit Kayu Samak (Syzygium inophyllum)
(The Color Change of Jabon Wood Stained by Bark Extract of Samak Wood (Syzygium inophyllum))
Muflihati 1), Deded S Nawawi 2), Istie S Rahayu 2), Wasrin Syafii 2)
1) Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Tanjungpura, Pontianak
2) Departemen Hasil Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Institut Pertanian Bogor Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor
Corresponding author: email@example.com (Muflihati)
The water soluble extract of samak (Syzygium inophyllum) bark was applied as natural dye for jabon wood (Anthocephalus cadamba). Ten percent of the extract concentration was used for staining of jabon wood by soaking methods for 74 h at room temperature, and for 3 h at 70 oC, respectively. The stained jabon wood performances were evaluated as the color change and stability by hot water leaching test. The stained and leached woods were assessed by determination of color changes using CIELab method and FTIR analysis. Based on the CIELab analysis, the brightness (L* value) of stained jabon wood decreased, and tend to more reddish (a* value increased) and yellowish (b* value slightly increased) compared to these of unstained wood, as the results, the color of jabon wood changed from light grey to reddish orange after staining with samak bark extract. The leaching test of stained wood to hot water changed the color from reddish orange to dull orange. FTIR analysis indicated that part of the extract stained jabon wood was quite stable to hot water treatment.
Key words : bark extract, jabon wood, natural dye, samak wood, Syzygium inophyllum
Distribusi Bahan Pengawet Larut Air pada Kayu Diawetkan secara Sel Penuh dan Sel Kosong
(Distribution of Water Borne Preservative on Wood Preserved Using Full
Cell and Empty Cell Processes)
Fauzi Febrianto 1), Adiyantara Gumilang2), Anne Carolina1), Fengky S Yoresta1)
1) Departemen Hasil Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB Dramaga, Bogor, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
2) Departemen Proteksi Tanaman, Fakultas Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor. Kampus IPB Dramaga, Bogor, 16680, Indonesia
Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org (Fauzi Febrianto)
This research focused on distribution of water borne preservative on woods preserved using full cell and empty cell processes. Retention, penetration, and durability of preserved woods against dry wood termite (Cryptotermes cynochephalus LIGHT) attacked were evaluated. Pine (Pinus merkusii) and sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria) woods were preserved using 5% Wolmanit CB (water soluble preservative) using full cell and empty cell processes. The results indicated that retention of preservative preserved with full cell process was higher than empty cell process. Copper penetration on sengon wood preserved using full cell process was much higher than empty cell process. Distribution of copper and chromium on wood preserved using full cell process evenly distributed through the wood both in pine and sengon woods. They were sharply decreased from outerpart to inner part of wood when preserved using empty cell process. The whole part of pine and sengon woods preserved by either full cell or empty cell processes strongly resistance against dry wood termite attacked. Quantitative analysis of active substance of preservative using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) could detect the preservative in preserved wood more accurately compared using conventional method (retention and penetration tests).
Key words: distribution pattern, durability, empty cell process, full cell process, water
Studi Eksperimental Perilaku Lentur Balok Glulam Kayu Pinus (Pinus merkusii )
(An Experimental Study on the Flexural Behavior of Glulam Beam of Pinus Wood (Pinus merkusii))
Fengky S Yoresta
Departemen Hasil Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Institut Pertanian Bogor,
Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680
Corresponding author: email@example.com (Fengky S Yoresta)
The aimed of this research was to determine the flexural behavior of glulam beam made from pine wood (Pinus merkusii) under various laminate thicknesses and then compared to its solid beam. The material used was pine wood with moisture content of 10% and and polyurethane adhesive (Water based polymer isocyanate, WBPI). Four types of glulam beams (namely, Glulam A, B, C, and D) produced with laminate thickness of 25, 16.67, 12.5, and 10 mm, respectively. Solid beam was also prepared as control. All beams have a cross sectional dimension of (50×50) mm2. Bending test is conducted using a 5 ton capacity of Universal Testing Machine, Instron 330. The results indicated that incerasing in number of laminate to a point tend to increase the values of stiffness and modulus of rupture (MOR) of glulam beams. However, the higher of laminate thickness tends to decrease the stiffness and MOR values. Energy absorption of solid beam was noted twice compared to glulam beams.
Key words: flexural behavior, glulam beam, modulus of rupture, Pinus merkusii,
Bond Ability of Oil Palm Xylem with Isocyanate Adhesive
Atmawi Darwis1), Muhammad Y Massijaya2), Naresworo Nugroho2), Eka M Alamsyah1), Dodik R Nurrochmat2)
1) School of Life sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
2) Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org (Atmawi Darwis)
Oil palm xylem composed of vascular bundles and parenchyma tissue and directly related to its properties. Utilization of oil palm xylem into the wood laminate products requires information on its bond ability to adhesive used. Isocyanate adhesive is a prospective adhesive due to its various advantages compared to other adhesives. This study aimed to obtain information about the bond ability of the oil palm xylem with isocyanate adhesive. The results showed that isocyanate adhesive has good wettability on oil palm xylem indicated by its contact angle of below 90°. Isocyanate adhesive also showed good performance by looking at the value of wood failure and delamination. However, the shear strength of laminated oil palm xylem was low. Wood failure occurred in the parenchymal tissues region.
Key words: bond ability, isocyanates, laminated board, oil palm xylem
Uji Bioaktivitas Zat Ekstraktif Pohon Mindi (Melia azedarach Linn) dengan Metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test
(Bioactivity Test of Mindi Extractives (Melia azedarach Linn) Using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test)
Wasrin Syafii 1), Rita K Sari 1,2), Siti Maemunah 1)
1) Departemen Hasil Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680
2) Pusat Studi Biofarmaka IPB, Kampus IPB Taman Kencana, Bogor 16151 Corresponding author: email@example.com (Wasrin Syafii)
The aims of this research were to determine the yield of extracts from continuous extraction of heartwood, sapwood, inner bark, branch, and leave of Toona sinensis in n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvents and their bioactivity using brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT) was evaluated. The results indicated that the yield of leave, inner bark, branch, heartwood, and sapwood extracts were 11.0, 6.7, 1.9, 1.6, and 1.6%, respectively. The highest yield of extracts was obtained from extraction in ethyl acetate (16.1%), followed by methanol (3.5%), and n-hexane (3.1%). The BSLT tests showed that the ethyl acetate extracts of all tree parts have higher bioactivities (LC50 1-52 μg ml-1) than the n-hexane extracts (LC50 40-181 μg ml-1), and the methanolic extracts (LC50 49-1375 μg ml-1). The ethyl acetate extract from inner bark has the highest bioactivity (LC50 μg ml-1). The qualitative analysis detect the ethyl acetate extract from inner bark containing saponins, alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids, and glycosides.
Key words: Artemia salina, bioactivity, brine shrimp lethality test, Toona sinensis
Proporsi Kayu Teras dan Sifat Fisik-Mekanik pada Tiga Kelas Diameter Kayu Gelam (Melaleuca sp) dari Kalimantan Tengah
(Heartwood Proportion and Physical-Mechanical Properties of Three Diameter Class of Gelam Wood (Melaleuca sp) from Central Kalimantan)
Wahyu Supriyati 1), Tibertius A Prayitno 2), Soemardi 2), Sri N Marsoem 2)
1) Jurusan Kehutanan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Palangka Raya, Palangka Raya
2) Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gadjah Mada, Bulaksumur Yogyakarta Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org (Wahyu Supriyati)
Gelam wood (Melaleuca sp) commonly used for house poles in peatswamp land of Central Kalimantan. However, increasing the utilization of gelam wood lead to harvest a small diameter of trees. This research aims to study the percentage of heartwood, physical and mechanical properties of gelam wood of different diameter class, i.e. <10 (d1), 10-18 (d2), and >18 cm (d3). Test specimen of physical and mechanical properties was taken from different part of wood in radial direction; near the heart and bark, respectively. Physical and mechanical properties of wood; specific gravity (SG), moisture content (MC), stress at proportion limit (PL), modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), hardness, and compression perpendicular to grain were determined according to British Standard 373-1957. The result showed that the proportion of heartwood in d1 was 42.27%, and tend to increase with increasing of iameter classes. The increasing of heartwood proportion from d1 to d2 was 33.97%, and from d1 to d3 was 38.81%. Specific gravity and hardness of wood increased by increasing of diameter class. However, the higher diameter class resulted in the lower of green MC, stress at PL, MOE and MOR values.
Key words: diameter class, gelam wood, heartwood, physical-mechanical properties
Karakteristik Bambu Lapis Menggunakan Anyaman Kajang dari Bambu Andong (Gigantochloa pseudoarundinaceae)
(Characteristic of Plybamboo Made from Woven Mat of Andong Bamboo (Gigantochloa pseudoarundinaceae))
Ega P Yoga1), Sukma S Kusuma2), Jajang Suryana1), Muhammad Y Massijaya1)
1) Departemen Hasil HutanFakultas Kehutanan,Institut Pertanian Bogor, IPB Kampus Dramaga, Bogor 16001, Jawa Barat, Indonesia.
2) Biomaterial Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (LIPI)
Jl. Raya Jakarta Bogor KM 46 Cibinong 16911, Jawa Barat, Indonesia
Corresponding author: email@example.com (Muhammad Y Massijaya)
The objective of this research was to analyze the influence of adhesive types, composition of width and thickness of bamboo’s strip to the physical and mechanical properties of plybamboo. Andong bamboo (Gigantochloa pseudoarundinaceae) was used in the form of the woven bamboo mat type with different thickness of 0.5 and 1 mm, and different width of 1 and 2 cm. The internal bonding and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of the plybamboo did not fulfilled SNI 01-5008.2-2000 standard. Modulus of rupture (MOR), moisture content, and density fulfilled the SNI 01-5008.2-2000 standard. The resulting epoxy resin based plybamboo was better than that of PVAc resin based plybamboo. The bamboo failure of epoxy resin based plybamboo was 20.10-35.58%. Ply-bamboo using thickness of 8 mm, width of 2 cm, and glued with epoxy resin had better physical and mechanical properties compared to other plybamboo.
Key words: andong bamboo, epoxy, plybamboo, PVAc
Sifat Permesinan Dua Jenis Kayu Kurang Dimanfaatkan Asal Papua Barat
(Machining Properties of Two Lesser Used Timber from West Papua)
Wahyudi, Muhamad Makrus, Antonius EB Susilo
Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Negeri Papua
Jalan Gunung Salju, Amban Manokwari, Papua Barat
Corresponding authors: firstname.lastname@example.org (Wahyudi)
Machining properties of wood play important roles in wood-working processes and will determine quality of end-wood products. There are several less-used species of wood with superior properties and could be promoted as commercial timber. This research was designed to explore the machining properties of two less-used spesies from West Papua of, watergum (Syzygium sp) and simpur (Dillenia sp). Varibles used to evaluate the machining properties are planning, sanding, boring, mortising, and turning. A modified- ASTM D 1666-64 was used to investigate this experiment. The results indicated that water gum was classified to the first class of machining properties (very good) having free defects of 83.70%, while simpur belongs to the second class (good) with free defects of 72.55%. These wood species are comparable with matoa and could be used as substituent timber. According to their density, these two wood species were suitable for general construction, housing material and furniture products. Both species are highly being recommended for customer preferences instead of the previously favourable timbers.
Key words: machining properties, less-used species, simpur, water gum
Carbon Dioxide Injection in Bamboo Cement Board Manufacturing
Laboratory of Forest Product Utilization and Processing, Faculty of Forestry, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
Corresponding author: email@example.com (Bakri)
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of CO2 injection in liquid phase to the physical and mechanical properties of cement board made from bamboo particles of Gigantochloa atter, Dendrocalamus asper and Schizostachyium brachycla. Mixtures of bamboo culm particles, cement, and water in the ratio by weight of 1:2.5:1.25 were casted in iron plate mold of (25x25x1) cm3, pressed and then hold for 24 h to obtain the target density of 1 g cm-3. The board was then injected by CO2 in liquid phase for 30 min of curing time period. Evaluation of physical and mechanical properties of board were evaluated in accordance to JIS A 5417-1992 standard. The results showed that moisture content of the boards was 3.15-3.62%, density was 0.68-0.80 g cm-3, water absorption and thickness swelling after immersed in cold water for 24 h were 45.11-57.60%, and 0.65-0.87%, respectively. The internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture were 0.18-0.74, 1339-5031, and 40.12-79.59 kg cm-2, respectively. Only cement board made from mixture of G. atter particles, cement and water met physical properties requirement of JIS A 5417-1992 standard. However, no cement board fulfilled the mechanical properties requirement of JIS A 5417-1992.
Key words: bamboo, carbon dioxide injection, cement board
Aktivitas Antiproliferasi Ekstrak Jabon Putih (Anthocephalus cadamba Miq.) terhadap Sel Kanker Payudara dan Serviks
(Antiproliferative Activities of Anthocephalus cadamba Extracts on Human Breast Cancer and Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines)
Rita K Sari 1,2), Devi Armilasari1), Deded S Nawawi 1),Wayan Darmawan 1),
Silmi Mariya 3)
1) Departemen Hasil Hutan Fakultas Kehutanan, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus Dramaga, Bogor 16001
2) Pusat Studi Biofarmaka IPB, Jl. Taman Kencana No 03, Bogor 16151
3) Pusat Studi Satwa Primata IPB, Jl. Lodaya No 5, Bogor 16151
Coresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org (Rita K Sari)
The aim of this research was to evaluate the anticancer properties of methanolic extracts from inner bark and wood of jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba). The extracts were investigated in vitro bioassay for its possible antiproliferative activities on human MCF7 breast cancer cell line and HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma cell lines. The cell viability were assessed using microculture tetrazolium technique (MTT) colorimetric assay. The results showed that inner bark extract exhibited higher antiproliferative activity on MCF7 cancer cell line (IC50 91 μg ml-1) than wood extract (IC50 312 μg ml-1). But, antiproliferative activity of inner bark extract on HeLa cell lines was higher (IC50 5 μg ml-1). The inner bark extract is potential to be developed as anti cancer agent in cervical adenocarcinoma cancer therapy because moresecure against Vero normal cells (IC50 288 μg ml-1). Whereas compounds such as phenolic and fatty acid contribute to high antiproliferative activities of inner bark extract. The qualitative analysis detect the extracts containing flavonoids, triterpenoids, saphonin which are thought to contribute to the high antiproliferative activities of this extract.
Keywords : Anthocephalus cadamba, antiproliferative activity, human MCF7 breast
cancer cell line, HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma cell lines, Vero normal cell lines